News Values

News can be defined by reporting information regarding recent events and happenings, locally or even worldwide (Media College 2016) . Most of us always turn to sources of news, including the ones online, because we always perceive it as a reliable medium which caters to all individuals. There is no exact age limit to read the news, its open to everyone single person, depending on their preference of sections. People often find the news to be truthful which in cases like speculation, this factor would be very helpful. But not many know how stories are checked if their newsworthy before inserting them into sections within the news. So, let’s take a look at what makes news newsworthy.

The first news value that affects stories to be newsworthy would be impact. In this phase, stories are first off evaluated on how they would affect readers’s lives. Just like impact, the second news value proximity plays a role within newsworthiness too. When it comes to proximity, the journalist distinguishes if the story matters to the audience. Proximity reveals the depth of the story, according to how it would impact and relate to its readers (Digital Third Coast 2016). Another example of news value would also include timeliness. Timeliness ensures the latest news regarding events and happenings are published for the public’s knowledge. Among the other few, another important factor which affects news value would be ‘the bizarre’. At this phase, bizarre happenings usually attracts people to read the news. People often are taken into things which are unexpected, disgusting or dangerous. Hence, journalists who gather information are in search of good bizarre stories to entertain their audiences. Using all eight news values; prominence, conflict, currency and human interest (Digital Third Coast 2016) , it is evident how news stories are filtered through these processes to ensure that the story published is newsworthy.

References

Media College 2016, ‘What Makes a Story Newsworthy?‘, accessed 11/11/2016,

<http://www.mediacollege.com/journalism/news/newsworthy.html&gt;

Digital Third Coast 2016, ‘The Eight Values That Will Make Your Content ‘Newsworthy’‘, accessed 11/11/2016,

<http://www.digitalthirdcoast.net/blog/values-content-newsworthy&gt;

 

 

Purpose of Peace Journalism

The purpose of journalism is pretty much simple. Journalism keeps us informed of any changing events, issues and characters out in the world (American Press Institute 2016). Rather than being defined by technology, or views and techniques journalists employ, journalism stands for something more true and provides us with information in the form of news. By engaging with news, the public, people like us, create this sense of belonging to the world. We are made aware of past incidents and future predictions where we are able to decide on the best possible decision which affects our lives, communities, societies and governance.

On a similar note, peace journalism creates one of the biggest impacts to people like us. The whole term could be defined by Lynch and McGoldrick (2005) as a set of choices of what and how to report which creates an opportunity for readers to consider and value nonviolent responses to the conflicts happening worldwide (Lynch, Hussein 2015). According to Galtung (1998), war journalism which is often embedded into peace journalism could be categorized into four components, such as 1) towards war and violence, 2) towards propaganda, 3) towards elites as peacemakers and 4) towards victory (Lynch, Hussein 2015). In a few words, we could say peace journalism uses conflict analysis and transformation in order to update the public with the concept of right judgement, balance and accuracy in reporting (McGoldrick, Lynch 2000).

In another article, authors have also distinguished peace journalism into five key aspects. The first would be to explore backgrounds and contexts of conflict formation which are transparent for audiences. Next, it would venture into giving voices to all parties, not just the leaders of two antagonistic groups (Lynch, Hussein 2015). Where else, the third reveals creative ideas to resolve the conflict and development for peace making. The fourth however speaks on exposing lies, cover-ups and culprits on all sides. The last factor includes to pay attention to other peace stories and postwar developments from other authors (Lynch, Hussein 2015). By following these key aspects, peace journalists are believed to report accordingly, without being bias and true to their story. Audiences are able to detect the sequence of the incident depending on story’s transparency, hence allowing them to relate and give feedbacks on the incident.

References

American Press Institute 2016, ‘What is the purpose of journalism?’, accessed 11/11/2016,

<https://www.americanpressinstitute.org/journalism-essentials/what-is-journalism/purpose-journalism/&gt;

Lynch, J Hussein, S 2015, ‘Media and conflicts in Pakistan: Towards a theory and practice of peace journalism‘, accessed 11/11/2016,

<https://sydney.edu.au/arts/peace_conflict/publications/Peace%20Journalism,%20media%20and%20conflicts%20in%20Pakistan.pdf&gt;

McGoldrick, A Lynch, J 2000, ‘Peace Journalism‘, accessed 11/11/2016,

<https://www.transcend.org/tri/downloads/McGoldrick_Lynch_Peace-Journalism.pdf&gt;

Transnational Comedy

Before we get into transnational comedy, let us define what transnationalism means. Transnasionalism refers to multiple ties linking people or institutions across borders of nation-states (Chalaby 2005, Straubhaar 2007).  There is an ongoing debate regarding transnational  flow within television comedy. Since these sitcoms are given culturally influenced assertions and specificity, researchers believe this would make it harder for them to export any comedy recordings worldwide. Features like -namely, ambiguity, interpretive diversity and contradictions- are fundamental factors which only exist within television comedy (Lockyer, Popa 2016). Unlike the singularity interpretation that exist in serious programmes, television comedy depends on the discursive display of opposing interpretive possibilities where everyday commonsense and assumptions about the world are turned upside-down or inside-out. In the midst of these all, researchers have also found a strategic increase to the numbers of transnational flow specifically in British  television comedy in new Eastern Europe markets (Lockyer, Popa 2016)  .

References

Lockyer, S Popa, D 2016, ‘“I Like the Metamorphosis of the Characters”: Dynamics of Transnational Television Comedy Engagement’, International Journal of Communication, accessed on 11/11/2016,

<file:///C:/Users/TOSHIBA/Downloads/2941-18351-1-PB.pdf>

Victoria, K 2016, ‘- To Get To The Other Side: Transnational Comedy’, accessed 11/11/2016,

<https://katevictoriablog.wordpress.com/2016/09/03/to-get-to-the-other-side-transnational-comedy/&gt;

Music As A Resistance Tool

Music is considered as one of the most basic forms of entertainment. If it weren’t for music, entertainment mediums like radio, television and films would be less expressive and dull. Can anyone imagine a Bollywood title with no music? Or what about sitcoms like Glee which revolves its entire story line with songs? Yes, music could be considered as a vital source of pleasure however there are also those who use it for social evolutions (Martin 2014). Since music does affect man intellectually and emotionally, it is used as an effective propaganda tool during political interventions. Futhermore, its use is continued through 1) revolution, 2) shaping collective identity, 3) repression, 4) manifestation of statehood, 5) political protest, 6) political campaign and also 7) war (Gelnarova 2014)

Most of the examples found are mainly derived from the U.S. as their musicians and songwriters often get involved in social evolutions which uses songs and political messages to move the public’s hearts. One of the greatest examples of all time would be Billie Holiday’s ‘Strange Fruit’ (Martin 2014) . Apparently, she was illustrating the events- lynchings and abominations- that were happening in American South. As audiences tend to draw themselves closer to resistance music, Aretha Franklin had brought her gospel music into the streets as protestors were marching and demanding for respect during the Civil Rights Movement. Another artist named Curtiss Mayfield had also joined in the resistant music group as he united everyone using his song of hope ‘People Get Ready’ (Martin 2014) . In addition to that, the famous Stevie Wonder had continued the ongoing trend as he played more resistant music to uplift the spirits of Americans.

The list does not end here. There are several other music artists who have also joined in the same circle as the ones mentioned above. But the reason for their commitment towards resistance music is hard to display. However, we have found an article which predicts the reason as to why resistance music is powerful. For one it says, music gets people talking and thinking (Martin 2014) . I suppose that ‘assumption’ is good enough as people are obliged into following trends which music brings them. We see the public paying for concerts, dressing up exactly like the artist, and willing to record songs mimicking the singer. In a way, it displays society as a vulnerable group who keeps receiving ideas and absorbing them. At times active, but very often audiences are passive. They do not question why or what is going on, but they often follow what others are doing and this creates the ripple effect within their community.

References

Martin, B 2014, ‘Music and the Politics of Resistance‘, The Huffington Post, accessed 11/11/2016,

<http://www.huffingtonpost.com/barrett-martin/music-and-the-politics-of_b_4087557.html&gt;

Gelnarova, J 2014, ‘Hudba & Politika’, National Museum, accessed 11/11/2016,

<http://www.yearofczechmusic.cz/download/HaP_poster_tisk.pdf&gt;

Diasporic and Crossover Cinema

So, what is diaspora? The term diaspora is originally derived from the Greek word diasperien. It illustrates the shift of a selected group of people from their own country to another continent. The diasporic movement had come about for many reasons; it could be political, economical, or even social related factors (Film Reference 2016) . Sometimes, the move is not all voluntary but forced for a certain diasporic group. For instance, diaspora back then meant the exile of the Jews from Palestine (Film Reference 2016). However as time moved on, the term was often associated with slave trade and forced migration of Africans to the ‘New World’ in the sixteenth century (Film Reference 2016) . Furthermore, the term was also recognized for its use against Palestinians and Armenians who had constantly shifted due to their formations in the twentieth century. Among the few reasons people had accelerated the idea to a diasporic movement would be because of 1) globalizing economic processes, 2) labor market, 3) effects of political instability, 4) population pressures and 5) human rights violation (Film Reference 2016) .

Diasporic groups who cultivate hybridity from varies ethnics is believed to be some sort of a threat as locals perceive them as a challenge to their norms and social practices of the land. For one, their movies are observed as a combination of different groups and languages which are far from being culturally monolithic (Encyclopedia 2007) . Their culturally diversed background provides diasporic movie makers with compelling sets of narratives and styles while addressing the issues of exile, belonging  and xenophobic communities (Encyclopedia 2007). In a way, it helps diasporic groups familiarize into their new environment while giving them the confidence to increase in participation when it comes to media production (Cottle, 2000). A very good example would be Eugene Lee Yang’s efforts when it came to Asian American You Tubers case study. He had demanded only the use of Asian-American on their staff production instead of diversifying the people in the video content. Yang stated how he saw this as a perfect opportunity to represent a community which was largely ignored in other outlets.

As for crossover cinema, the term is defined by movies which are filmed through varies types of cultural representations; especially at the stage of conceptualization and production, hence manifests into a hybrid cinematic grammar (Khorana 2013) . The movie Slumdog Millionaire would be the perfect example for crossover cinema which made its debut in 2008. India is currently observed as maintaining a steady growth in crossover films as they are establishing it as a genre on its own (Gupta 2013) . Danny Boyle’s famous movie depiction ‘Slumdog Millionaire’ has the potential of being a diasporic crossover Indian film as they have collaborated using a Western director and Indian co-director. According to Khorana (2013), the movie which was shot in London and India is acknowleged as a possible first globalised film in history. Remarkable movies such as these could be perceived with a positive outlook as it signifies indifferences between culture, and places them on an even platform. Personally, I think crossover movies could be the next best thing on earth.

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Photo credits to indian glitz

References

Encyclopedia 2007, ‘ Diasporic Cinema‘, accessed 11/11/2016,

<http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/diasporic-cinema&gt;

Film Reference 2016, ‘Diasporic Cinema‘, accessed 11/11/2016,

<http://www.filmreference.com/encyclopedia/Criticism-Ideology/Diasporic-Cinema.html&gt;

Khorana, S 2013, ‘Crossover cinema: a conceptual and genealogical overview‘, University of Wollongong, accessed 11/11/2016,

<http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2020&context=lhapapers&gt;

Gupta, P 2013, ‘Crossover Films: Bridging the Divide‘, Friday Brands, accessed 11/11/2016,

<http://www.fridaybrands.com/crossover-films-bridging-the-divide/&gt;

Witheridge, G 2014, ‘ Going Global: “Slumdog Millionaire” A Film without Boundaries‘, accessed 11/11/2016,

<https://givernywitheridge.wordpress.com/2014/09/06/going-global-slumdog-millionaire-a-film-without-boundaries/&gt;

 

Hollywood Adaptation within Bollywood Cinema

At present, media flow is perceived as a constitution between two types of flows; dominated and contra. Though dominated flow does have a higher impact towards worldwide media today, we are here to acknowdlege the rising of contra-flow too. Entertainment industries in India (Bollywood), Korea, Japan, China and Nigeria (Nollywood) are several good examples of contra-flow and how they have impacted worldwide audiences around them. It is true how people use to prefer entertainment when it was broadcasted in their own language as it represents cultural identities from their very own continent (Elavsky 2016). However, viewers are more complex these days as they have access to multiple media formats through advanced technology and Internet which gives them ample access to anything local, regional, national and international (Elavsky 2016) .

Industries such as the cinema have incorporated acculturation to their movies as a spread of global culture. Since there is an expansion to media appliances, this has only made cultural landscape more complicated than it used to be. The rising platform has given the perfect opportunity for smaller industries to voice themselves and get into the competitive global market. But what makes this really interesting, industries involved with contra-flow are manifesting themselves with ‘new’ media values which are indirectly conspired with the idea of dominancy. Rumours have it the dominant Western media like Hollywood provides the framework/ measuring stick for other cinematic industries to follow.

A very prominent example would be Bollywood’s cinematic industry, which is stated to consciously mimic American norms while attaining their Indian culture in order to ensure its success among the diasporic of South Asians (Hirji 2016). Most Bollywood films are seen oozing with Hollywood’s idea of media content yet continues to primarily market using Hindi language to satisfy the lingusitic diversity of its people (Hirji 2016). In other words, we could argue how contra-flow is still suppressed by the dominant media industries which makes us look into the idea of neo-colonialism. It makes us realize how smaller countries are still struggling to make a name independently based on their own materials and how much further this would prolong.

In a nutshell, we could summarise the whole thing into a few words. Clearly, neo-colonialism is an ongoing process. The idea of Western influences remains quite dominant up in the hierachy while continents involved in contra-flow are still placed lower than the dominant. We need to admit that people have been blind-sided into consuming all the free media content the Internet provides without realizing the flow of colonialism it instills.

References

Elavsky 2016, ‘Contraflow in Global Media‘, International Communications, accessed 11/11/2016,

<http://www.personal.psu.edu/cme16/blogs/comm_410/lectures/IC%20Week%2011%20Notes.pdf&gt;

Hirji, F 2016, ‘When Local Meets Lucre: Commerce, Culture and Imperialism in Bollywood Cinema‘, Carleton University, accessed 11/11/2016,

<http://www.globalmediajournal.com/open-access/when-local-meets-lucre-commerce-culture-and-imperialism-in-bollywood-cinema.pdf&gt;

Problems Faced by International Students

International students have always faced trouble when it comes to studying abroad. Most of these students, Asians going to the West or vice versa, have confronted complex situations especially when it comes to adjusting themselves to a new background. Alike to this situation, a recent article has provided us an insight on how Chinese students have the most trouble adapting to the American Educational System (Zhang 2016). Looking into international education, we can best describe it as  an external mediated ‘adjustment’ or ‘acculturation’ which obliges to the requirements of the host country (Marginson 2012). These students who have transferred miles away from their original country are usually kept under observation as they proceed with a rigorous progression substituting their home identity for a host identity. However, the progression period between two individuals varies as it depends on their willingness and acceptance level to adapt change.

Although there are several other factors, language is always seen as the biggest obstacle for international students (Armstrong 2014). Chinese students who have to go abroad are usually given a Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) before they transfer to America. Based on observations, most of them have resulted poorly when it came to speaking in English however excelled quite well when it came to the written portion (Zhang 2016). Students from Eastern continents have usually displayed problems when it comes to speaking as they have trouble catching up with the language and slang used in the University. Based on experience, international students have always tried to catch up with their syllabus by having translations from their friends or peers in order to grasp what is going on in class. Their less-ideal situation also comes as a frugal when it comes to making friends or having a normal interaction with locals abroad.

Another factor which implies as a barrier would be the cultural changes an individual has to go through due to the move (Armstrong 2014). An international student is very likely to find discomfort emotionally and physically as they are trying to embrace another culture’s beliefs and traditions. Habits like smoking and drinking which is accustomed to westerners might be hard for a Chinese, Indian or even Middle Eastern student. Their morals and principles are different, as Westerners are more individualistic while Eastern people are into collectivism. International students are likely seen with their group as they move and prefer deciding things together rather than alone. A few other cultural dimensions which supports this idea would also consist of Hofstede’s cultural factors like Power Distance (PDI), Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) which simplifies the difference between Western and Eastern culture.

In addition to that, climatic changes are also considered a barrier. International students have to get themselves adjusted to different environmental temperatures as they move around abroad (Armstrong 2014). The beginning of adaptation is stated to be quite challenging. Most of them do fall ill, as their body takes time to adjust to the new climate changes. Furthermore, students are also reminded to change their dressing styles according to the new conditions they would be facing. And for the last barrier, international students do get ‘homesick’ quite often (Armstrong 2014). The need for them to leave their families and stay apart for an ample amount of time indirectly affects them physically and emotionally. Most of the time, international students would consider their mates as their new family members as this would avoid them from overthinking about their families.

In a nutshell, we have learned how there are plenty of barriers for international students once they are studying abroad. However, to overcome those problems, I believe they need to be strong-willed as this would help them sustain while going through acculturation. Also, extra guidance from school would help them cease these barriers for an extended amount of time. International students need to give it a chance in order to welcome changes while holding on to their identities in order to sustain themselves in a foreign country.

References

Armstrong, A 2014, ‘Problems that can be faced by International Students’, Student Competitions.Com, accessed 31/10/2016,

<https://studentcompetitions.com/posts/problems-that-can-be-faced-by-international-students&gt;

Marginson, S 2012, ‘Morphing a profit-making business into an intercultural experience’ , International education as self-formation, accessed 31/10/2016,

<https://www.uow.edu.au/dvca/ltc/teachdev/octal/content/groups/public/@web/@cedir/documents/doc/uow119828.pdf&gt;

Zhang 2016, ‘ Most difficult problems for Chinese students in American Universities‘, The Ohio State University, accessed 31/10/2016,

<https://u.osu.edu/zhang.4921/most-difficult-problems-for-chinese-students-getting-a-higher-education-in-american-universities/&gt;