At present, media flow is perceived as a constitution between two types of flows; dominated and contra. Though dominated flow does have a higher impact towards worldwide media today, we are here to acknowdlege the rising of contra-flow too. Entertainment industries in India (Bollywood), Korea, Japan, China and Nigeria (Nollywood) are several good examples of contra-flow and how they have impacted worldwide audiences around them. It is true how people use to prefer entertainment when it was broadcasted in their own language as it represents cultural identities from their very own continent (Elavsky 2016). However, viewers are more complex these days as they have access to multiple media formats through advanced technology and Internet which gives them ample access to anything local, regional, national and international (Elavsky 2016) .
Industries such as the cinema have incorporated acculturation to their movies as a spread of global culture. Since there is an expansion to media appliances, this has only made cultural landscape more complicated than it used to be. The rising platform has given the perfect opportunity for smaller industries to voice themselves and get into the competitive global market. But what makes this really interesting, industries involved with contra-flow are manifesting themselves with ‘new’ media values which are indirectly conspired with the idea of dominancy. Rumours have it the dominant Western media like Hollywood provides the framework/ measuring stick for other cinematic industries to follow.
A very prominent example would be Bollywood’s cinematic industry, which is stated to consciously mimic American norms while attaining their Indian culture in order to ensure its success among the diasporic of South Asians (Hirji 2016). Most Bollywood films are seen oozing with Hollywood’s idea of media content yet continues to primarily market using Hindi language to satisfy the lingusitic diversity of its people (Hirji 2016). In other words, we could argue how contra-flow is still suppressed by the dominant media industries which makes us look into the idea of neo-colonialism. It makes us realize how smaller countries are still struggling to make a name independently based on their own materials and how much further this would prolong.
In a nutshell, we could summarise the whole thing into a few words. Clearly, neo-colonialism is an ongoing process. The idea of Western influences remains quite dominant up in the hierachy while continents involved in contra-flow are still placed lower than the dominant. We need to admit that people have been blind-sided into consuming all the free media content the Internet provides without realizing the flow of colonialism it instills.
Elavsky 2016, ‘Contraflow in Global Media‘, International Communications, accessed 11/11/2016,
Hirji, F 2016, ‘When Local Meets Lucre: Commerce, Culture and Imperialism in Bollywood Cinema‘, Carleton University, accessed 11/11/2016,